Modern apples originated in Kazakhstan: Study

Modern apples originated in Kazakhstan: Study

Tasty modern fresh apples come from a mountainous region of Kazakhstan, according to a study revealing a striking bilateral journey on the silk route to one of the most popular fruits in the world.

As travelers walked east and west along the silk route, trading their goods and ideas, they brought with them the potatoes thrown from the choicest fruits that were taken from wild trees, the researchers said.

This early selection would ultimately lead to the 7500 varieties of apples that exist today, they have to say. Researchers, including those from the Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) in the US, have sequenced and compared the genomes of 117 adherents of different apples, including domestic and 23 million wild in North America, Europe and Central and East Asia .

“We have reduced the origin of the home apple from the broad Central Asia to Kazakhstan area west of the Tian Shan mountains,” said Zhangjun Fei, BTI professor.

Researchers found that the first homemade apple had traveled east, hybridizing with local wild apples along the way, giving the ancestors sweet table apples grown in China today.

“We emphasized two major evolutionary routes, west and east, along the silk route, revealing the quality of the fruit changes every step along the way,” Fei said. Researchers also found that when the apple traversed along the silk route in the hands of travelers, trees growing from seeds fell and crossed other varieties of wild apples, including the incredibly European crabepple acid.

They found that M sylvestris contributed so much to the apple genome that modern Apple is actually more similar to that of sour crabepple than its ancestor Kazakhstan, M sieversii.

“For the ancestral species, Malus sieversii, fruits are generally much larger than other wild apples. They are soft and have a very simple taste that people do not like,” said Yang Bai BTI.

The hybridization between the oldest cultivated apples and sylvestris M, followed by a large human selection has given us new large apples and broad, with a crisp firmness that gives them a longer life, according to the researchers.

“Modern domesticated apples have a higher and more balanced organic acid and sugar content, so Apple has started to become a popular and privileged fruit,” Bai said. The study was published in the journal Nature Communications.

Ice cream goes to space!

Ice cream goes to space!

A SpaceX capsule was fired at the International Space Station on Monday, carrying tons of scientific research. And ice cream!

As has become customary on these cargo flights, SpaceX landed its leftover reinforcement at Cape Canaveral shortly after takeoff, a key to its long-term effort to recycle rockets and reduce costs.

“Beautiful day, spectacular launch,” said Dan Hartman, NASA’s deputy director for the space station program.

The experiments make up the bulk of the 6,400 pounds of cargo, which should reach the lab in orbit on Wednesday. That includes 20 mice that will come back alive within the SpaceX Dragon capsule in about a month. The Dragon also doubles as an ice cream truck this time around.

There was extra space in the freezer, so NASA packed small cups of vanilla ice cream, chocolate and ice cream birthday cake as well as chocolate ice cream.

Those invitations should be especially welcomed by the American astronaut Peggy Whitson, in orbit since November. She must return in early September. Newcomer Randolph Bresnik turns 50 next month.

The space station was approaching 250 miles over the Atlantic, just off Nova Scotia, when the Falcon took flight.

It was the 14th successful landing for SpaceX and the sixth on giant X at the company’s landing site at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, a few miles from its NASA-rented platform at the Kennedy Space Center.

“It’s right on the bull’s-eye, and a very soft touchdown,” said Hans Koenigsmann of SpaceX.

The mice on board are part of a study of visual problems suffered in space by some male astronauts. Scientists will study the pressure in the eyes of animals as well as the movement of the fluid in their brains.

Thirty days for mice in space is comparable to three years for humans, according to Michael Delp of Florida State University who is in charge of the experiment. The study could help explain why female astronauts do not have this vision problem, which can remain long after space flight, he added.

The Dragon also has an instrument to measure the cosmic rays of the space station. This type of device has previously flown on high altitude balloons. The Army has an onboard imaging microsatellite for launch this fall from the station.

It is a demonstration of technology; The military wants to see how small satellites like this one, with low-cost cameras and telescopes available on the market, could support critical ground operations. It’s the size of a bedroom refrigerator.

Three Americans and one Italian will tackle all this scientific work in orbit. The station is also home to two Russians; That number will be up to three in a year or so.

SpaceX Dragon is the only supply vessel capable of returning elements to Earth. Parachutes in the Pacific; The others burn during re-entry. AP

Accidental deaths of endangered whale threatens its survival

Accidental deaths of endangered whale threatens its survival

Portland, Maine | A high number of accidental deaths this year among endangered North Atlantic whales threaten the survival of the species, according to conservation groups and marine scientists.

Free whales this summer outside of New England and Canada are among the most threatened marine mammals on Earth. It is believed that there are only 500 giant animals left, and can not be less than 460, while the population had recovered slightly from the time of the whaling, when they are almost extinct.

Twelve whales are known to have disappeared since April, about 2 percent of the population perished in a few months, said biologist Regina Asmutis-Silvia Group of Plymouth, Massachusetts whale and dolphin conservation, The Associated Press this week.

She and others who study whales have said that this summer has been the worst season of whale deaths funny because their hunt became illegal there 80 years.

“This level of deaths in such a short time is unprecedented,” he said. “Just do not know that free whales have time to understand them. They need help now.”

Ten of the deaths were on the Atlantic coast of Canada, while two were from Massachusetts. Four animals have shown evidence of collision between vessels, while another appeared to have been entangled in fishing nets and at least one is still waiting for a necropsy, Asmutis-Silvia said. Some were too decomposed to determine the cause of death, he said.

Asmutis-Silvia and other conservatives have said that the deaths demonstrate the need to strengthen regulations to prevent attacks and guts in the US. And Canada.

Scott Kraus, director of the whale research program at the New England Aquarium, said that it is possible that whales are more vulnerable to today’s dangers because they travel more because of changes in food availability or warming The oceanic waters.

“When whales travel more, they put themselves at greater risk,” Kraus said.

The 12 deaths are just the observed mortality, and could be the additional natural death in nature, Kraus said.

The future of whale rescue work has been the subject of debate since veteran rescuer Joe E. Howlett died on July 10 following the release of a whale off the coast of New Brunswick, Canada.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has responded by suspending its efforts for free whale wrapped in fishing lines and later announced that rescue teams will resume most operations.

Maritime regulators in the US And Canada have said that the government focuses on protecting whales. Speed ​​restrictions have significantly reduced the number of deaths in strikes by free-ship whales, said Mike Asaro, chief of the branch of marine mammals and sea turtles in the NOAA Atlantic.

The Canadian Fisheries and Oceans regulation uses a variety of new ways to try to assist whales, including surveillance flights along the Gulf of San

Lawrence and the closing of a snow crab fishery, said Sarah Gilbert, a spokeswoman for the department. The Canadian government recently announced new speed restrictions for ships.



August 21, 2017, there will be a total solar eclipse visible on a line in the United States. But when the solar eclipse occurs exactly in a certain place? Being able to predict astronomical events has always been one of the great triumphs of accurate science. But in 2017, how can we do?

Stephen Wolfram is a computer scientist, physicist and businessman.

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The answer, I think, is pretty good, even if the front of all the movements just over 1000 mph, it should be possible to predict when you will get to a certain spot in a second maybe.

And as proof, we have created a website to allow anyone to enter their geographical location (or address), then immediately calculate the eclipses when they reach and generate many other pages of information.
This is an old COMPANY
In these days, it is easy to know when the next solar eclipse will be; Although integrated with Wolfram’s language, there is a function that tells him (in this form, output is the “most hidden moment”):

It is also easy to find and track where the whole region will be:

Or to determine that the entire area will be about 16% of the surface of the United States:

But computer eclipses are not exactly a new business. In fact, 2000 years old Antikythera device was even trying to do it – with the help of 37 metal gears to get closer to the movement of the Sun and Moon (yes, with Earth in the center).

To me, there is something disturbing – and warning – in the fact that the Antikythera device is such a solitary, but not forgotten technology surpassed for over 1600 years.

But there, at the bottom of the unit, there is an arm that moves, and when a mark or mark Η Σ, indicates an eclipse of the Sun or the possible Moon. How to set the dates on the device is a bit weird (after all, the modern calendar would not be invented for another 1,500 years)

However, if we take the Wolfram Demonstration Project simulation (which was calibrated in 2012 during the creation of the demonstration), and turn the crank to adjust the equipment to August 21, 2017, here’s what you get:
And, yes, all these gears are moving to align the indicator of the moon with the sun – and to the arm in the lower right-hand point of Η – as it should for a solar eclipse. It is amazing what happens successfully in a device designed 2000 years ago.

Of course, the results are much more accurate today. Although, curiously, despite all the theoretical science that has been done, how we actually calculate the position of the Sun and Moon is conceptually very similar to the gears and efficiently – epicycles – the device of Antikythera. It’s just that we now have the digital equivalent of hundreds of thousands of gears.

‘Most bizarre dinosaur ever found’ is missing evolutionary link – study

‘Most bizarre dinosaur ever found’ is missing evolutionary link – study

An unusual vegetarian dinosaur with the silhouette of a velociraptor to tear the meat, whose fossilized remains were discovered in southern Chile there 13 years ago, is a missing link in the evolution of dinosaurs, researchers said.

A revised diegosuarezi chilesaurus assessment, regarding kangaroo, reported in the journal Biology Letters, builds a theory revealed earlier this year, which threatens to change a ranking of all long dinosaurs.

Dinosaurs were the kings of the earth for 160 million years until a space rock had struck the planet there are 65,500 years and the erased people confined to the earth. Survivors, who are able to fly, direct ancestor of birds today.

“Chilesaurus really helps fill a gap in evolution between the two main groups of dinosaurs,” said co-author Paul Barrett, president of the Palaeographical Society of Great Britain and researcher at the Natural History Museum.

When first introduced to the world in 2015, chilesaurus – despite its penchant for plants – has been grouped with theropods, the suborder of carnivorous dinosaurs which includes not only velocitrapteurs float, but Tyrannosaurus rex, the final carnivore .

Experts acknowledged at the time, however, was an uncomfortable adjustment. One describes the beast as “the strangest dinosaur ever found.”

An, powerful vertical hind legs and limbs before short cuts remind all theropods.

However, an inverted hip structure, similar to a bird and flat teeth and leaf shape – proof of an exclusively vegetable diet – suggested that it also shares traits with another important suborder, Ornithology.
How we reveal a new dinosaur family tree
Read more
The well-known ornitisquio include Triceratops and Stegosaurus three tons, which had large armored plates along its spine and a walnut brain size.

“Chilesaurus initially appeared as a previous theropod drift line, but it was suspected that all these adaptations seemed to eat plants,” Barrett said.

There lived about 150 thousand years, long before the handful of known theropods to rotate away from the flesh, he said.

To check chilesaurus place in the family dinosaur tree, Barrett and Matthew Baron University of Cambridge analyzed more than 450 anatomical features of the first dinosaurs.
“We realized that it was not a strange thropode and early-eating plants, but rather a strange animal to eat plants that was a branch of that other group of ornithischians,” Barrett said.

The new affiliate has important implications. For much of the last century, experts have agreed that theropods were more closely related to a third major evolutionary branch, sauropods, which includes long-necked animals such as the Diplodocus and Brachiosaurus.

But chilesaurus shows that the feared killers under the shared terópodo umbrella, in fact, a greater affinity with the collection of wild animals docile Ornitisquia.

FC Barcelona lack firepower without Neymar, says Sergio Busquets

FC Barcelona lack firepower without Neymar, says Sergio Busquets

Barcelona midfielder Sergio Busquets of Barcelona reiterated his request that the club consolidate Tuesday in the market of passes, but warned that the replacement of the fault Neymar will be almost impossible.

The absence of the Brazilian realized that Barca fell in a defeat of the Spanish Supercup by 3-1 at home first step for Real Madrid in the first game of the Catalans and Neymar moved to Paris Saint-Germain record of 222 Millions of euros to the world ($ 262 million).

“It is clear that with the departure of Neymar, the team lost its offense,” Busquets said ahead of Wednesday’s race at the Santiago Bernabeu in Madrid (2100GMT pitch).

“He obviously realizes what kind of player Neymar is.”

Busquets said immediately after the loss on Sunday that Barca must sign after the initial offers to attract Coutinho Liverpool Ousmane Dembele Borussia Dortmund was rejected last week.

However, the Spanish international believes that the only way to pass the decision of Neymar leap to the French giant is that the Blaugrana team improved overall instead of finding a similar replacement.

“Neymar’s departure, there is a lack of offensive players, but as I said before improving, he is improving all positions and all aspects.

“We expect a lot of high-quality players can enter.

“There is only one Neymar and now that he is no longer with us, we have to go ahead and try to improve as a team,” he said.

Barca made Brazilian international midfielder Paulinho their first signing since Neymar’s departure from Chinese club Guangzhou Evergrande for 40 million euros on Monday.

Despite general skepticism about his ability to make an impact in Spain after a disappointing season at Tottenham Hotspur before moving to China, Barca boss Ernesto Valverde insisted that Paulinho bring a different dimension in the field of Average Barça.

“From a physical point of view, he is a powerful actor who can offer us versatility,” Valverde said.

“There is no other player of his type on the team,” he concluded.

Serena Williams Aims For ‘Outrageous’ Australian Open Comeback

Serena Williams Aims For ‘Outrageous’ Australian Open Comeback

Serena Williams, a “new energy” sensation in her pregnancy, is already preparing for an Australian Open title defense in January. In an extensive interview with Vogue that touches on body image, maternity and race, Williams said he had set the goal to play in Melbourne.

“This is the most outrageous plan,” Williams, 36, who is expecting his first child next month. “I just wanted to put that around. It’s about three months after delivery.

I’m not about to go back, but I just said it’s pretty intense. “Williams said during her dismissal from her pregnancy that she had carefully watched the world of tennis, including the execution of her sister Venus in the Wimbledon final.

And she has an eye on the record of all-time correspondence Margaret Court 24 Grand Slam titles. She was already pregnant when she won her 23 at the Australian Open in January.

“Obviously, if I get a chance to go out and get Margaret, I’m not going to spend,” Williams said. “In any case, this pregnancy has given me a new power.”

Williams said he had a “love-hate relationship with the idea of ​​power” regarding his game, sometimes uncomfortable that his skills and his strategy seemed to be sloppy.
“Little by little, as I get older, I began to feel differently.

Power is beauty. Strength is beauty. So now on the court, I want people to think I’m strong, “he said.
But she is dismayed to think that many interpret her determination in the field as “unpleasant” – something she believes to be about race.

“I think people think I’m bad,” he said. . “Very hard and very bad and really street I think the other girls in the dressing room saying: ‘Serena is very nice’ But Maria Sharapova, who could not tell anyone, could be perceived by the public as more pleasant ..

Why then? Because I’m black and that’s what I mean? It is the society in which we live. This is life. They say that African-Americans should be twice as good, especially women. I am perfectly satisfied to have to be twice as good. “

Sharp rally in banks & FMCG pushes Sensex up 321 pts, Nifty just below 9900

Sharp rally in banks & FMCG pushes Sensex up 321 pts, Nifty just below 9900

The Indian market has experienced a strong trading session on Wednesday as benchmark indices closed with strong gains, boosted by a rebound of banks and stocks of consumer goods. In the wider market, midcaps also had a field day and NIFTY outperformed the first line.

The gains followed a strong market move for the second consecutive session, after seeing a correction over the past week.

ITC, HDFC and HDFC Bank that contributed the most to the index gains. Only 13 stocks of Nifty were closed to red, where Infosys and Reliance were the main losers. Between sectors, except energy, all indices are closed in the green.

The Sensex finished 321.86 points 31,770.89, while the Nifty finished above 103.15 to 9,897.30 points. The breadth of the market was positive, but slightly narrower than the 1628 stocks advanced against a decline of 946 shares, while 118 stocks remained unchanged.

Cipla, Tata Motors and Mahindra Tech won the majority in both indices, while NTPC, Asian Paints and Power Grid detailed the top losers.

Leverage companies ended up good gains after the stock market regulator and the Indian Securities Board (SEBI) has filed a notice that no open offer would be required of the providers.

“Since the beginning of this week, investors in India have raised recent concerns in favor of buying value. Landmarks in India have opened the day with a flat note, but then escaped weak strength and exchanged with Robust earnings.

The Sensex and Nifty benchmark finally closed the day with 1% profit, “Lakshmanan Karthikraj, Tercera Fund Manager – Equities, mutual fund BNP Paribas said in a statement.

Among global markets, European stocks were higher Wednesday morning, while geopolitical tensions on the Korean peninsula are slowing and investors followed a quiet night performance on Wall Street.

The Stoxx 600 across Europe increased 0.53% shortly after the market opened with almost all sectors and major exchanges in positive territory.

Most stock markets in Asia closed higher on Wednesday as investors digest the release of regional bidders and the resurgence of the dollar.

The Nikkei 225 in Japan fell 0.12% or 24.03 points to close at 19,729.28. The gains in most technology stocks compensate for losses in mobile homes, commercial houses and trade names. South Korea’s Kospi rose 0.60%, or 14.04 points to stand at 2 348.26, while markets returned from a holiday.

The S & P / ASX 200 in Australia rose 0.48%, or 27,617 points to close at 5 785,100, which has previous crossover below the flat line. The broader index was generated by gains in the energy subindex, which rose 2.68 percent, while the financial subindex rose by a large weighted 0.46 percent.

Hong Kong’s Hang Seng index rose 0.72% to 15:10 HK / SIN, but the continental markets were mixed. Shanghai compound reached 0.14% or 4.6372 points to close at 3246 6624, while Shenzhen Composite increased by 0.588% or 11,1032 points to finish at 1,898.3865 ….